|Bodybuilding Dictionary of Terms: M-R
BodybuildingPro.com Bodybuilding Dictionary of Terms M-R Terms
Go to: S-Z Terms
Masculinization: General term used to describe the host of
side effects experienced by female users of anabolic steroids.
Common effects include deepening of the voice, facial hair growth,
and clitoral enlargement.
Mass: The relative size of each muscle group, or of the
entire physique. As long as you also have a high degree of
muscularity and good balance of physical proportions, muscle mass
is a highly prized quality among competitive bodybuilders.
Megadosing: The practice of taking athletic drugs and
supplements in dosages far beyond those needed to obtain a desired
Mesomorph: The mesomorph body type has a medium sized bone
structure, and makes gains in muscle mass much more quickly than
the other two types. He responds quickly to planned exercise and to
Metabolic Optimizer: General term used to describe any
supplement that boosts an athlete’s recovery system. Most
metabolic optimizers contain a substance that is reputed to offer
some degree of performance enhancement.
Metabolism: The sum total of all biochemical reactions that
take place in the human body. Metabolism can be divided into
anabolism and catabolism, the sum total which determines whether an
individual gains or loses weight.
Mineral: A naturally occurring inorganic element used for
the regulation of metabolism.
Muscle Contraction: Any of five types of movement caused by
muscular work. See: Isometric Contraction, Concentric
Contraction, Eccentric Contraction, Isotonic
Contraction, and Isokinetic Contraction.
Muscle Atrophy: See Atrophy
Muscle Dysmorphia is a newly diagnosed disorder characterized by a
prolonged period of almost continuous eating, resulting in
hypertrophy of the limbs and interrupted by bodybuilding training
in the gym. Those who suffer from muscle dysmorphia always see
their body as being too small, no matter how much weight they can,
or how large their muscles become. The sufferer lives in a constant
fear of being too small.
Muscle Hypertrophy: See Hypertrophy
Muscularity: An alternative term for definition or
Myofibril: An individual muscle fiber formed by muscle
cells being attached end to end.
Nautilus: A brand of exercise machin in common use in large
gyms. Used when bodybuilders want to add variety to their workouts.
For example, doing front squats on a Nautilus squat machine as
oppsed to free weight squats for a workout.
Negative (Rep): The downward half of a repetition, also
known as the eccentric contraction. By placing resistance on the
negative half of the movement, you can induce a high degree of
Nitrogen: A gaseous, nonmetallic element. Nitrogen is a
component of all proteins. Nitrogen is essential to the synthesis
of proteins the body must have, particularly nitrogen - containing
compounds or amino acids derived directly or indirectly from plant
food. The process of protein metabolism accounts for nitrogen
balance. When protein catabolism exceeds protein anabolism, a
negative nitrogen balance exists in the body. When protein
anabolism exceeds protein catabolism, a positive nitrogen balance
exists in the body.
NPC: The National Physique Committee, Inc., which
administers men's and women's amateur bodybuilding competitions in
the United States. THe NPC National Champions in each weight class
are annually sent abroad to compete in the IFBB World
Nutrition: The applied science
of eating for greater health, fitness, and muscular gains. Through
correct application of nutritional practices you can selectively
add muscle mass to your physique, or lose body fat, revealing your
full genetic potential, and achieving a very self gratifying
Olympian: A term reserved for
use when regerring only to a bodybuilder who has competed in the
Mr. Olympia or Ms. Olympia competitions. Not to be confused with
the more common meaning of the term, which refers to those athletes
who have competed in the Olympic games.
Olympic Barbell: A special type of barbell used in weight -
lifting and power - lifting competitions, but also used by
bodybuilders in heavy basic exercises such as bench press, squat
and deadlifting (the three basic powerlifting movements, which can
also be incorporated into bodybuilding). Each bar weighs 45 lbs (20
kg). The collars used in powerlifting and weightlifting weigh 5.5
lbs (2.5 kg). Collars at your gym may vary in weight, however.
Olympic Lifting: The type of weight lifting contested at
the Olympic Games every four years, as well as at national and
international competitions each year. The two lifts (the snatch and
the clean - and - jerk) are contested in a wide variety of weight
Overload: The amount
of weight that you force a muscle to use that is over and above its
normal strength ability. Applying an overload to a muscle forces it
to increase in hypertrophy.
exceeding the body's recovery ability by doing too lengthy and . or
too frequent workouts. Chronic overtraining can lead to injuries,
infectious illness and worse: a cessation or even regression in
gains of a muscle mass, tone, and strength.
Ovo-vegetarian: A diet excluding all meat and dairy
products except eggs.
Passive Stretch: A partner assists you in moving joints
through their ranges of motion. You can achieve a greater range of
motion passively than you can statically. However, because you are
not controlling the movement, there is a greater risk of injury.
Passive stretching is a valuable technique but should only be used
by experienced people who thoroughly understand the technique.
There must also be good communication between the people performing
and receiving the passive stretches.
Peak: The absolute Zenith of competitive condition achieved
by a bodybuilder. To peak out optimally for a bodybuilding show,
you must intelligently combine bodybuilding training, aerobic
workouts, diet, mental conditioning, tanning, and a large number of
other preparatory factors.
Peaking: See Peak
Pesco-vegetarian: A diet including dairy products, eggs and
fish, but excluding fowl and red meat.
Placebo Effect: Pharmacological term used to describe the
effects produced by an intert (inactive) substance. Often called
“mind over matter”, the placebo effect is used to
explain the positive actions of many supplements which are in many
cases nothing more than nutrients.
Plantar Flexion: Moving the top of the foot away from the
shin, that is, pointing the toes down, as in heel raises.
Plates: The flat discs placed on the ends of the barbell
and dumbbell bars to increase the weight of the apparatus. Although
some plates are made from vinyl - covered concrete, the best and
most durable plates are manufactured from metal.
Pose: Each individual stance that a bodybuilder does
onstage in order to highlight his or her muscular development.
Posedown: A forth round of judging conducted at the evening
show in which the top six competitors are compared in their own
choices of poses for a few, final, vital placing points.
Posing Routine: The well - choreographed series of
individual poses a bodybuilder presents to his or her choice of
music in the public presentation (Round Three) of the NPC / IFBB
judging system. In this posing routine the competitor can choose
individual poses, as opposed to the required poses done in the
manadatory round at the prejudging, and thereby camouflaging weak
points and emphasizing particularly well - developed areas.
Positive Nitrogen Balance: Biochemical state where nitrogen
levels are sufficiently high enough to allow protein synthesis to
occur. Positive nitrogen balance is one of the conditions
accelerated by the use of anabolic steroids.
Posterior: Used to describe the position of a structure
when it is behind another comparable structure, as the posterior
(or rear) head of the deltoid.
Poundage: The amount of weight that you use in an exercise,
whether that weight is on a barbell, dumbbell, or exercise
Power: In bodybuilding and power lifting, this is strength,
of the ability to use very heavy poundages on all basic movements.
In a sports context, power is the ability to move heavy weights
Power Lifting: A second form of competitive weight lifting
(not contested at the Olympics, however) featuring three lifts: the
squat, the bench press, and the deadlift. Power lifting is
contested both nationally and internationally in a wide variety of
weight and age classes for both men and women.
Power Rack: A power rack is a safety apparatus that has two
thick adjustable steel pins that the barbell rests upon.
Bodybuilders and powerlifters use the power rack to perform squats,
shrugs, deadlifts and presses.
technique used primarily on torso-muscle groups (chest, back,
shoulders) which makes the weaker arm muscles temporarily stronger
than normal, so basic exercises like bench press, lat machine
pulldowns, and standing barbell presses can be pushed far past the
point at which a bodybuilder would fail to continue a set. Preex
involves supersetting an isolation exercise for a particular torso
muscle (for example, flat bench flyes for the pecotral muscles)
with a basic movement (for example, bench presses) for the same
Pre-judging: Judging of the first two rounds of the IFBB
judging system during a morning or afternoon session separate from
the evening public presenation at which Round Three is judged.
Progression: The act of gradually adding the amount of
resistance that you use in each exercise. Without consistent
progression in your workouts, you won't overload your muscles
sufficiently to promote optimum increases in hypertrophy.
Pronation: You pronate your hand when you turn the palm
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): PNF
techniques are used to improve strength and flexibility. The
technique attempts to use reflexes initiated by muscle and joint
receptors to cause greater training effects. The most popular PNF
stretching technique is the contract - relax stretching method. The
muscle is actively contracted before it is stretched. Static
stretching is generally preferred over PNF.
Protein: General term used to
describe molecules composed of specific sequences of amino acids.
Protein is the body’s primary building material and while
small amounts can be manufactured, most must be consumed in the
Another option to maintain your total protein intake for the day is
to take the product in liquid form. The most common are protein
drinks available in small bottles, generally 500 ml or less. They
are moderately priced and conveniently sized, making them very easy
to drink whether at home or at the gym.
Protein Metabolism: The processes whereby protein
foodstuffs are used by the body to make tissue proteins, together
with the processes of breakdown of tissue proteins in the
production of energy. Food proteins are first broken down into
amino acids, then absorbed into the bloodstream, and finally used
in body cells to form new proteins. Amino acids in excess of the
body’s needs may be converted by the liver enzymes into keto
acids and urea. The keto acids may be used as sources of energy via
the Krebs citric acid cycle, or they may be converted into glucose
or fat for storage. Urea is excreted in urine and sweat.
Pump: A commonly used bodybuilding term is “the
pump”. “The pump” occurs when your muscles swell
up beyond their normal size by a considerable amount. Looking at
yourself in the mirror, you will look bigger, and likely show
appear more vascular and defined as well as being more confident in
yourself. This pump is normally fast to achieve and shouldn’t
take much more than four sets. I find a really good way to pump up
is to do pushups until I reach failure, and normally my chest will
look bigger than ever. A good pump can be felt and noticed
throughout the entire workout if done properly. Oxygen and
nutrients will continually to be brought into the area being
exercised during intense weight training activity. Blood is forced
into the area being exercised but not drawn out. This extra blood
stays in there for some period, causing it to swell and appear
noticeably bigger. A reason why many people like to pump up before
they pose for a picture is to take advantage of this difference in
size which occurs. See also, Bodybuilder’s High
Pump Set: A high - rep set, usually in the range of 15 to
20 repetitions, of a basic exercise which is done after a peak
weight has been handled in that movement. Usually a pump set is the
last one done on a particular basic movement. A pump set is also
sometimes called a down set.
Training: A type of workout used just prior to a
competition in which the lengths of rest intervals between sets are
progressively reduced to increase overall training intensity and to
help further define the physique.
Recovery Cycle: The process between workouts during which
the body flushes out fatigue toxins, restores muscle glycogen,
repairs itself, and increases in hypertrophy. The length of this
cycle varies from as little as 48 hours to as much as one full
week, and perhaps more. Recovery is enhanced by sufficient sleep
and proper nutrition.
Rep: See Repetition
Repetition: This term, which takes on the short form, rep,
refers to a single rendition of an exercise. For example, if your
curl a barbell through the entire range of motion once, you have
completed one repetition (rep) of the movement.
Resistance: The actual amount of weight you are using in
Rest Interval: The brief pause lasting between 30 seconds
to two minutes, and in some cases even longer, which occurs between
sets to allow your body to partially recuperate prior to initiating
the succeeding set.
Reverse Anorexia: See Muscle Dismorphia
Ripped: See Cut
Roid Rage: Popular name given to the uncontrolled outburst
of anger and violence exhibited by anabolic steroid users. Despite
never being proven by the medical community, the term is
continuously exaggerated by the mainstream media.
Rope: This attachment is used on a cable machine, and is
commonly used for exercises such as rope pulls, or triceps
Routine: The term routine
is very broad, and encompasses virtually every aspect of what you
do in one weight lifting session, including the type of equipment
you use, the number of exercises, sets, and repetitions you
perform; the order in which you do the exercises; and how much rest
you take between sets. You can change the factors within your
routine to change your results.
Go to: S-Z Terms
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